Fit India Movement
Introduction of Physical Fitness
Today there is a growing emphasis on looking good, feeling good and living longer. Increasingly, scientific evidence tells us that one of the keys to achieving these ideals is fitness and exercise. Getting moving is a challenge because today physical activity is less a part of our daily lives. We have become a mechanical mobile society, relying on machines rather than muscles to get around. In addition we have become a nation of observers with more people spending their leisure time pursuing just that- leisure. Consequently, statistics show that obesity and overweight, the problems that come with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiac arrest etc. are on the rise. But statistics also show that preventive medicine pays off, so one should not wait until his /her doctor gives an ultimatum. Everyone must take the initiative to get active now.
Definition of Physical Fitness
Physical fitness is to the human body what fine tuning is to an engine. It enables us to perform up to our potential. Fitness can be described as a condition that helps us for better look, pleasant feel and do our best.
“Physical fitness refer to the organic capacity of the individual to perform the normal task of daily living without undue tiredness or fatigue having reserves of strength and energy available to meet satisfactorily and emergency demands suddenly placed upon him” NIXON
Before undertake any fitness programme it’s important to remember that fitness is an individual quality that differs from person to person. It is influenced by age, sex, heredity, diet, attitude towards life, anxiety, tension and stress, value of physical fitness, Institutional curricular and policy/legislation. About the first three factors, you can’t do anything. However, it is within your power to change and improve the others where needed. Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs and the muscles of the body. And since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds, fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability.
Components of Physical Fitness
Exercise scientists have identified nine elements/components that comprise the definition of fitness.
Strength: The extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance.
Power The ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements.
Speed The quickness of movement of limb.
Agility The ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions.
Balance The ability to control the body’s position, either stationary or while moving.
Flexibility The ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue.
Muscle Endurance A single muscle’s ability to perform sustained work.
Cardiovascular Endurance The heart’s ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it.
Strength Endurance A muscle’s ability to perform a maximum contracture time after time.
Co-Ordination The ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved.
How you measure your fitness levels
Everybody have probably some idea of how fit you are, but knowing the specifics can help you to set realistic fitness goals? Once you know the starting point, you can plan where you want to go. Get started with simple assessment which is furnished below.
Aerobic fitness
Your heart rate at rest is a measure of heart health and fitness. For most adults a healthy heart rate is 60 to 100 beats a minute.
Target Heart Rate Zone
Your heart rate at rest is a measure of heart health and fitness. For most adults a healthy heart rate is 60 to 100 beats a minute.
Sl. No. Age (In years) Target Heart rate zone: Beats a minute Maximum Heart rate: Beats a minute
1 25 98-146 195
2 35 93-138 185
3 45 88-131 175
4 55 83-123 165
5 65 78-116 155
Another strategy of assess aerobic fitness by 2.4 km run or jug. The following times are generally considered indicators of a good fitness level based on age and sex
Sl. No. Age (In years) Women: Time in minutes Men: Time in minutes
1 25 13 11
2 35 13.5 11.5
3 45 14 12
4 55 16 13
5 65 17.5 14
Muscular strength and endurance
By push- up test. The following counts are generally considered indicators of a good fitness level based on age and sex.
Sl. No. Age (In years) Women: Number of push-up Men: Number of push-up
1 25 20 28
2 35 19 21
3 45 14 16
4 55 10 12
5 65 10 11
By Sit- up test. The following counts are generally considered indicators of a good fitness level based on age and sex.
Sl. No. Age (In years) Women: Number of sit-up Men: Number of sit-up
1 25 39 44
2 35 30 40
3 45 25 35
4 55 21 30
5 65 12 24
Flexibility
By sit and reach test. This is a simple way to measure the flexibility of back of legs, hips and lower back muscles. The following measurements are generally considered indicators of a good flexibility based on age and sex.
Sl. No. Age (In years) Women: Furthest reach Men: Furthest reach
1 25 55cm 50cm
2 35 52cm 47cm
3 45 51cm 44cm
4 55 48cm 42cm
5 65 44cm 39cm
Body mass Index (BMI)
Is a calculation that indicates whether you have a healthy amount of body fat. By using a simple calculation you may determine of BMI. Divide your weight in kilograms by your height in centimeters. The following BMI results demonstrate whether you are at a healthy weight.
Sl. No. BMI Weight status
1 Below 18.5 Under weight
2 18.05 -24.9 Normal weight
2 25.00 - 29.09 Over weight
Recommended Sports and Exercise at different stage of life
In the age of 20s, the body is strong and resilient. This is the perfect time to build a foundation of fitness, develop exercise as a habit and make it a regular part of life. That will make it easier to keep it up as you get older. Play sports with friends, such as any organized games, go for hiking or biking, options are endless. You should try to exercise at least 30 minutes a day, 05 days a week. Remember that your bone and muscle strength will be losing along with your age. So be sure to include strength training as part of routine, ideally muscle strength training exercise may include 2 to 3 days in a week.
In 30s our body first starts to lose muscle tone because of age. That makes weight training especially important during this time. Join gym and start lifting weights. Our bones start to weaken as we get older, too. This is a good time to start focusing on bone strengthening and weight bearing activities are part of routine, which includes brisk walking, jogging or doing Yoga. This is a good time to experiment with different kinds of workouts. Something new may help you challenge new muscle groups and helps you to avoid boar feeling during workouts. Beside walk for exercise try an aerobics class, if you are an avid biker try swimming or dancing instead. Mix it up to keep things interesting and your workouts well-rounded.
40s is the time of our life when it is most important to have an exercise routine. Our bodies naturally start to decline in middle age. Muscles begin to lose mass and elasticity. This slows our metabolism and makes it easier to gain weight. Keep up with cardio workouts, 3 to 5 times a week, if feel pain in joints switch to low-impact activities. These could include biking or swimming, weight bearing activities such as walking or jumping are important during this time which may help us to maintain strong bones and fight age-related bone lose. Be sure to keep up of muscles- strengthening routines as well.
In 50s may start to experience more ache and pains on daily basis, don’t let this stop you from exercising. Just adopt exercise programme on low impact activities such as walking, biking or swimming generally go easy on joints. After vigorous workouts this may also be sorer, reducing the intensity and exercise more often instead. During this time, strengthen your core by focusing on the muscles in abdomen and back, this will help to stand up straight and fight the curve.
60s is the time when need to start focusing on preventing falls. Continue aerobic exercise regimen in 30 minutes of activity 5 times a week. Lift weight or use resistance training 2 to 3 times a week to keep muscles and bones get strong. Start working on balance, these include standing on one foot, leg rises and walking heel to toe.
Features of various activity
Aerobic activity These are activities that get their hearts pumping which include running, ridding by- cycles or fast walking.
Muscle Strengthening These activities build muscles which includes climbing trees, gymnastics and lift weights, push- ups, sit-ups, using resistance bands, yoga etc.
Bone Strengthening These activities make bone stronger which include running, fast walking or jumping rope.
Moderate –Intensity exercise includes brisk walking, water aerobics, playing tennis (doubles) or riding a by -cycle.
Vigorous exercise includes swimming laps, jogging or running, playing tennis (singles) ridding by cycle on hills or at a fast pace.